What are some brain hacks that a neuroscientist or a psychologist knows that most people don't?
哪些用腦秘訣大多數人不知道只有神經學家或心理學家知道?


獲得131.5k好評的回答@Dylan James:

The Psychology of Persuasion
說服心理

Everyone has to engage in some form of persuasion throughout most of their life. Whether you are deciding with friends where to eat lunch or convincing a boss you deserve a promotion, you can always benefit from knowing the secrets of persuasion.
每個人一生中大部分時間都會有說服別人的經歷。無論是和朋友決定午餐地點或說服老板該給你升職,知道說服的秘訣總能給你帶來好處。

In Dr. Robert Cialdini's bestselling book "Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, " what he found was :
在Robert Cialdini博士的暢銷書《影響:說服心理》(Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion)中,他發現:

Behavior is heavily influenced by unconscious psychological factors
無意識的心理因素對行為影響很大

These psychological factors can be identified and utilized
這些心理因素可以被確認并加以利用

If used correctly, people have no idea that they are being manipulated
如果使用得當,人們都不知道他們正在被控制

相互作用

Free samples. Have you ever seen free samples being handed out in grocery stores or while walking down the street? Rest assured they aren't doing this out of the kindness of their hearts. Studies have shown a dramatic increase in efficacy of marketing tactics if they are preceded by a "gift" which triggers a natural feeling of debt in the target.
免費樣品。你在商店里或走在街上時是否見過有人發放免費樣品?他們這樣做肯定不是出于好心。研究已經表明如果賣東西之前先贈送一個小禮物的話,營銷效果會有戲劇性的提高,因為這個小禮物會激起目標人群自然的欠債心理。

Consistency
一致性

An amazingly powerful concept. People will go to extraordinary lengths without even realizing it, just to remain consistent with their past actions and beliefs. This principle is especially significant if past behavior is public or written down, in which case it can't be denied.
一個影響力驚人的概念。人們會下意識地竭盡全力,只是為了堅持以往的行為和信念。如果以往行為被公開或被記錄下來的話就不可否認,那這個原則就會顯得尤為重要。

Social Proof
社會證明

Why are there those silly laugh tracks on sit com TV shows? Because they work! People are extremely susceptible to the opinions of others, even when obviously false.
為什么情景喜劇里會有那些傻笑的背景聲音呢?因為它們很有效!人們非常容易受其他人想法影響,甚至在這些想法明顯錯誤時也會如此。

Authority
權威

In the aftermath of World War II and the atrocities committed by many seemingly normal Nazi commanders, greater attention was focused on the nature of authority in influencing people's behavior. It turns out, authority is one of the most powerful effects yet discovered.
二戰過后,在那些貌似正常的納粹軍官所犯的罪行中,權威影響人們行為的特性引起了人們更多的關注。結果證明權威是已知的最具影響力的事物之一。

Liking
喜歡

We all know that we are more likely to respond to a request from somebody we like than from somebody we dislike. But how much further does this feeling go? Apparently, a lot further!
我們都知道相對于我們不喜歡的人提出的要求我們更有可能會對喜歡的人的要求作出回應,這兩種感覺之間有多大差距呢?顯然是天壤之別。

Scarcity
短缺

One of the most fundamental attributes of persuasion, salespeople have been using the concept of scarcity for a very long time (ever hear or see the phrase "limited time only")? This one is also of interest to the relatively new field of behavioral economics.
這是說服力最基本的特質之一。銷售人員很久以來一直利用這個概念(是否聽過或看過“時間有限”這樣的話?)這個理念對于行為經濟學這一新興領域來說也是很有趣的。


獲得462.4k好評的回答@Colin Gerber:

Memory consolidation and productivity can both be improved by taking breaks.
記憶力的增強和工作能力均可以通過休息來提高。

Memory consolidation:
增強記憶力:

Tambini et al. recently showed that resting your brain after learning is very important in memory consolidation. During rest the hippocampus is able to transfer information to the cortex to be stored. The brain cannot do this very effectively if you do not take breaks.
Tambini et al.最近表明學習之后讓大腦休息對于鞏固記憶力非常重要。休息期間海馬體能把信息轉移到大腦皮層儲存起來。如果不休息大腦就不能有效完成這個過程。

Productivity
工作能力

It is suggested that you work in 60-90 minute intervals and then take a break. Ericsson et al. conducted a very interesting study looking at elite and average violin players and how much they practiced. They found that the elite players practiced for about the same amount of time as the good players per day. However, the elite players would practice very hard for no more than 90 minutes and then take breaks and even naps in between while the average players would practice throughout the day but with less focus.
建議你每工作60-90分鐘就休息一會兒。Ericsson et al.進行了一個非常有趣的研究,他觀察了優秀的和普通的小提琴演奏家以及他們練習的多少,發現優秀的演奏家和普通的演奏者每天練習的總時間是一樣的,但優秀的演奏家勤奮練習的時間不超過90分鐘,然后就會休息甚至睡一會再練,而普通的演奏者整天不間斷練習,但注意力卻不夠集中。


獲得24.3k好評的回答@Dean Yeong:

The world is so full of creeping dementia that forgetting feels ominous. If learning is building up skills and knowledge, then forgetting is losing some of what was gained. It seems like the enemy of learning.
世界上有這么多反應慢的癡呆以至于遺忘讓人感覺很不好。如果學習是在積累技巧和知識,那么遺忘就是丟掉已經得到的東西,它似乎是學習的敵人。

It's not. The truth is nearly the opposite.
其實不然,事實上恰恰相反。

One upside of forgetting is that it is nature’s most sophisticated spam filter. It's what allows the brain to focus, enabling sought-after facts to pop to mind.
遺忘的一個好處就是它是自然中最復雜的過濾器,它能讓大腦集中注意力,使大腦能想起最想找的信息。

We engage in this kind of focused forgetting all the time without giving it much thought. To lock in a new computer password, we must block the old one from coming to mind; to absorb a new language, we must hold off the corresponding words in our native tongue.
我們一直在進行這種集中注意力的遺忘卻不自知。為了記住新的電腦密碼,我們必須忘掉舊的;為了學習新的語言,我們就不能去想母語里相同意思的詞。

As the 19th century American psychologist William James observed:If we remembered everything, we should on most occasions be as ill off as we remembered nothing.
正如19世紀美國心理學家William James所觀察到的:如果我們記住一切,那么大多數情況下就會感覺自己好像什么都沒記住。

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(翻譯:菲菲)